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India: FaL-G Brick and Block: Micro Industrial Plants
(Community Development Carbon Fund)

UNFCCC Reference Nos.: 0707 , 4585 , 4831 , 5348

Project Photo 1
FaL-G brick production can fully replaces the use of coal and firewood (Photo: World Bank)

Project Description:
The India FAL-G Brick and Blocks Projects aim to reduce GHG emissions and generate co-benefits by promoting and deploying an energy efficient brick making technology to manufacture FAL-G (fly ash lime-gypsum) bricks and blocks as alternative building materials to the commonly used burnt clay bricks, which use fossil fuel for their production. Fly ash, a waste product from thermal power plants, is the key ingredient of FaL-G technology and is abundantly available in India. By displacing burnt clay bricks in the walling materials market, the project avoids GHG emissions, reduces topsoil denudation leading to land degradation and air pollution caused by emission of unprocessed flues. Furthermore, since the alternative building material (Fly Ash) is manufactured using industrial wastes and byproducts as raw materials, the environmental impacts associated with improper disposal of such industrial wastes are also mitigated by the project. The project bundles about 118 very small sector units in four Project Design Documents (PDDs), with a total expected carbon emission reductions of about 500,000 ERs.

Project Photo 2
Fal-G technology in India is used in less than 1 percent of bricks in spite of 10 years of effort. (Photo: World Bank)

Current Context:
Rapid growth and urbanization has resulted in high demand for bricks - over 100 billion bricks a year. Today brick suppliers range from industrialized modern manufacturers to traditional small-scale operators and clay bricks remain the predominant construction material. Traditional forms of clay brick manufacturing result in heavy environmental damage and require burning 200 tons of coal for every 1 million bricks. Indian authorities have committed to banning clay bricks in urban centers. While about 1,200 FaL-G brick making units are operating throughout India, Fal- G technology is used in less than 1 percent of bricks in spite of 10 years of government effort to promote this technology. Typically, brick makers in India are the landless poor and are subjected to extreme working conditions and poor remuneration.

The project has both intrinsic and extrinsic community benefits. Direct benefits include reduced air pollution and prevented soil erosion. The project provides additional benefits to brick workers who face high levels of structural poverty, such as stable year round work, health and accident coverage, improved working conditions and HIV/AIDS awareness among workers.



Non-seasonal work

Stable year-round work producing Fal-G bricks, as opposed to traditional clay brick manufacture, which cannot be done during the rainy season.


Project developer will provide heath and accident insurance to workers.

Improved air quality

The Fal-G process does not bake bricks in kilns, thus avoiding air pollution.

Avoided denuding of fertile soil

Traditional clay brick manufacture denudes fertile topsoil in the manufacturing process: 3,500 tons is used for every million burnt clay bricks. The Fal-G brick process avoids this.

Time Frame: 2006-2016

Community Benefits Budget: $42,000 per year (for insurance)

Monitoring Plan: The project sponsor signed an agreement with the entrepreneurs, giving each one responsibility for the community benefits plan, for coordinating with the insurance company to identify covered workers, and for periodically checking the status of the plan operation. Local entrepreneurs carry out insurance arrangements and monitor the implementation of the community benefits (other than insurance), explain the features and benefits of the community benefits arrangements to workers, monitor and report on the plan activity in accordance with agreement with the project sponsor, and maintain and update the list of covered persons of insurance arrangement. Insurance companies process the insurance plan, maintain insurance in accordance with agreed terms and conditions, and periodically report on the status of the coverage.

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