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Useful LULUCF Resources

Combating rural poverty and stabilizing rural economies are among the biggest challenges facing developing countries. By expanding markets for emission reductions in agriculture, forestry, and other land uses, there will be an unprecedented opportunity for poor small-holder farmers all over the developing world.

Unfortunately, the share of such projects in the carbon market is very limited by the rules and regulations under the Kyoto Protocol.

The BioCarbon Fund and many other organizations continue to promote LULUCF with a similar objective: to demonstrate that these types of project activities are important to the growth of the carbon market, and that the current rules and regulations under the Kyoto Protocol and the EU ETS exclude a large portion of the developing world from gaining access to the carbon market.

Below is the beginning of a list of useful resources from organizations that promote LULUCF. If you would like to add your resource to the list, please send a request to the Carbon Finance Unit Helpdesk.

Forest Carbon Market
LULUCF in the UNFCCC Climate Negotiations
CDM Regulatory Context
Project Development
Validation and Verification LULUCF CDM Projects
Soil Carbon Agriculture
Technical Resources on Forestry
Carbon Sequestration, Biological Diversity, and Desertification

Forest Carbon Market

LULUCF in the UNFCCC Climate Negotiations

CDM Regulatory Context


Project Development

  • BioCarbon Fund Experience: Insights from Afforestation / Reforestation CDM Projects
    The report is an effort  to inform project developers and policy-makers about the main lessons learned by the BioCarbon Fund while designing and implementing more than 20 A/R CDM forest projects in 17 countries.  It sheds light on opportunities the CDM offers to the forestry sector and also on the challenges encountered by project developers when complying with the regulatory requirements.  The report concludes with recommendations for policy-makers on how the currently rules can be improved to become more pragmatic and accommodate the reality on the ground, enabling the expansion of this underdeveloped sector.
  • Building Forest Carbon Projects: A Step-by-Step Guide
    The guide is an initiative led by Forest Trends and partially funded by the BioCarbon Fund.  It provides a streamlined summary of the key steps for the development of forest carbon projects, provides in-depth guidance on thematic issues, and refers project developers to tools available to facilitate project development.
  • Bringing Forest Carbon Projects to the Market
    This guidebook instructs project developers and financiers on how to develop and bring to market profitable forest carbon projects.  The Guidebook is published in English, Spanish, and French, and is made possible by generous support provided by UNEP, ONFi, the BioCarbon Fund, and Agence Française de Développement.
  • "Forest Carbon Strategies in Climate Change Mitigation: Confronting Challenges Through On-the-Ground Experience (The Nature Conservancy)"
    Released in 2009, the report starts with a background on forest carbon (policy and science) and provides field experiences on technical issues encountered during the development of forest carbon projects.
  • LULUCF Sourcebook:  Winrock International / BioCarbon Fund
    This sourcebook is designed to be a guide for developing and implementing land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) projects for the World Bank BioCarbon Fund that meet the requirements for the CDM. 
  • Guidebook for the Formulation of Afforestation and Reforestation Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism
    International Tropical Timber Organization, Technical Series 25 (2006) 
  • Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA)
    The Climate, Community and Biodiversity Project Design Standards (CCB Standards) evaluate land-based carbon mitigation projects in the early stages of development.
  • Winrock International
    Winrock program on Ecosystem Services, including carbon measurements and monitoring:
    Environment and community based framework for designing afforestation, reforestation and revegetation projects in the CDM: methodology development and case studies: 
  • Carbon Finance and Land Tenure
    Lessons from Sub-Saharan Africa.  Presentation by the BioCarbon Fund at the World Agroforestry Congress, August2009 – Nairobi, Kenya:  
  • Guía para el diseño de proyectos MDL forestales y de bioenergía (2008) - Spanish only
    Developed by CATIE / CIFOR, the guide provides useful information for the design of CDM forest carbon projects:

Validation and Verification LULUCF CDM Projects


  • Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF)
    The Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) assists developing countries in their efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation--called REDD--by providing value to standing forests.
  • Methodology for Avoided Unplanned Deforestation (VM0015)
    Approved under the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) and developed in partnership by the BioCarbon Fund and Amazonas Sustainable Foundation.  Includes links to the methodology and a webinar hosted in July 2011.
  • Project Developer’s Guidebook to VCS REDD Methodologies
    Developed by Conservation International, to assist project developers in evaluating and selecting those VCS approved methodology(ies) that are best suited to account for the greenhouse gas benefits of their proposed REDD project activities.
  • UNFCCC REDD Information sharing Web Platform
    Parties, relevant organizations and stakeholders are encouraged to submit information relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD) to this web platform.
  • REDD+ at Project Scale: Evaluation and Development Guide
    The guide is an initiative led by ONF International and partially funded by the BioCarbon Fund.  It provides support to project promoters in developing REDD+ projects, and also investors or funding agencies in their assessments of these projects.  It offers insights into existing tools and key questions that have to be addressed at the project scale and draws from the experiences of existing REDD+ projects and other more long-standing natural resource management projects.  The guide is available in English, French, and Spanish.
  • "Casebook of REDD projects in Latin America (The Nature Conservancy / IDESAM)"
    Released at COP-15 and developed by the Institute for Conservation and Sustainable Development of Amazonas (Idesam) in partnership with The Nature Conservancy-Brazil (TNC-Brazil), the casebook offers a streamlined and practical approach to presenting REDD pilot projects and initiatives that are being developed in Latin American countries.
  • REDD Financial Feasibility Assessment Tool
    The SOCIALCARBON® Standard and the Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA) have developed a tool to help project developers analyze the financial feasibility of potential REDD projects. This tool is now available for download at:
  • What is needed to make REDD+ work on the ground?
    In order to provide preliminary insights into what will be needed to make REDD+ work on the ground, Conservation International (CI) analyzes the experiences of 12 pilot forest carbon initiatives in which they have been involved as a partner.  Full report available in English, and Executive Summaries available in English, Spanish, French, Portuguese, and Chinese.

Soil Carbon Agriculture

  • BioCF Adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Land Management (SALM) Methodology (VM0017)
    Developed by the BioCarbon Fund and approved under the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS).  Includes links to the methodology and a webinar hosted in January 2012.
  • Technical Paper: Challenges and opportunities for mitigation in the agricultural sector
    Prepared by the Secretariat as requested by the AWG-LCA at its second session, this paper provides an overview of mitigation practices for the agricultural sector, and identifies relevant policies and measures.
  • Agricultural carbon sequestration: early action mitigation and investing (April 6, 2009 – AWG-LCA 5 side event, Bonn)
  • Workshop on Opportunities and Challenges for Mitigation in the Agricultural Sector (April 4, 2009 – AWG-LCA 5, Bonn)
    Presentations by the UNFCCC Secretariat, IPCC, FAO, and Parties to the Convention during the workshop, held at the March/April 2009 Bonn Climate Change Talks. 
  • Presentations made at the Agricultural Soil Carbon Methodology Workshop, 2 March 2009
    The workshop brought together top experts in the field, and focused on understanding the technical and economic potential of carbon mitigating options in the agriculture sector, highlighting successful management practices, case projects and methodologies, and exploring field methods for monitoring.
  • Agriculture and Rural Development Week (ARD) at the World Bank, March 2009
    ARD Week brought together over 300 internal and external development partners to discuss and devise a new ways to implement the ever-important agriculture for development agenda.  There was a session on “Carbon Finance Opportunities in the Agriculture Sector” on the second day of the event.
  • Agriculture and Rural Development Day (COP 15 – Copenhagen, 12 December, 2009)
    With a focus on "The road after Copenhagen: priority strategies and actions for ensuring food security and rural development in the face of climate change", the event will bring together policy makers and negotiators, rural development practitioners, producers, civil society and the agricultural and climate change scientific community to highlight the importance of agriculture in climate change and to identify the "no-regret" priorities for agriculture and food security where the world needs to take action:

Technical Resources on Forestry

Carbon Sequestration, Biological Diversity, and Desertification



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